How Can We Respect People with Disabilities? Start by Listening.

I am pleased to introduce social worker and writer Jeff Flodin as a guest blogger today. Jeff was diagnosed with Retinitis Pigmentosa at age 35 and has worked with two Seeing Eye dogs: Sherlock from 2003 to 2010, and Randy since March, 2010. Writing has been Jeff’s primary vocation for 10 years, and he is currently working on a short story collection about vision loss.

by Jeff Floddin

Jeff Flodin with his Seeing Eye dog.

Jeff Flodin with his Seeing Eye dog.

With the arrival of each season— baseball, football, hockey and Christmas — I mosey over to my neighborhood barber shop for a haircut. It’s a short walk and with Randy the dog guiding the way my mind is free to wander like a free range chicken. But I tune in the traffic pattern as we near the corner of Ashland and Foster. As I calculate the red light/green light sequence, I feel a tug on my sleeve.

“You get on the bus here,” says the little old lady, pulling me like a truant child toward what must be the bus stop.

“Not today, ma’am,” I reply. “Today I’m just crossing the street to the barber shop.”

“No, this is where you get on the bus,” she says, raspy and urgent.

“No, I don’t,” I say. “You get on the bus. I cross the street.” I fake left and run right. But she grabs my sleeve again and swings me around.

“I know you want to be helpful and I appreciate that,” I say. “But I’m really not interested in getting on the bus. I’m interested in crossing Foster.” I take one step and then realize that, in the sleeve-tugging and swinging around, I’ve lost my bearings. She senses my confusion and leads me toward the bus stop again, all the while shouting, “The bus is coming! The bus is coming!”

I hear the bus stop and the door open—whoosh! —and the old lady yelling, ”That man needs help!” to the bus driver, who now stands next to me asking, “You need help?”

“Yes, get me away from her for starters,” I tell him. “Then point me due south so I can cross Foster.” He does this without question or comment.

Thus, having regained my sense of place in the universe, I progress toward my goal, wondering where I’d be if not for the kindness of strangers.

A version of this post originally appeared on Jalapeños in the Oatmeal, Jeff Flodin’s blog about digesting vision loss.


How One Student Who is Blind Planned the Perfect Date

Easterseals National blog readers might recall a guest post Ali Krage wrote for Valentine’s Day last year about the challenges and joys of dating someone who is blind. Lucky us — she’s back again this year with a new post about the challenges and joys of planning a date with her boyfriend.

Ali and Joe.

Ali and Joe.

by Alicia Krage

In my post here last year I talked about how being with another blind person made me more independent. My boyfriend, Joe, and I talk about doing other things on dates besides the traditional dinner date. We’d be especially interested in doing something special in Chicago.

Finding something to do in Chicago that wasn’t especially visual was difficult — and to be honest, a little discouraging. But then, suddenly, it came to me. A friend who is blind let me know once that she liked to go to Andy’s Jazz Club in Chicago. Joe absolutely loves jazz music and would be up for it, so I did some research.

I started by calling the club and asking about admission prices. After that I used a program called JAWS (Job Access With Speech) on my computer to go over the dinner menu.

Now for looking up the distance from the train station to the jazz club. Google Maps doesn’t work well with JAWS, so I used an app called VoiceOver on my iPhone for Google Maps — iPhones come with an embedded voice synthesizer for VoiceOver.

I was pretty excited after doing all this research. This would be perfect for our two year anniversary, I thought. We’d have to wait until our anniversary comes in Spring, but we could do it. Excitedly, I called Joe and ran it all by him. He agreed!

Since I had him on the phone, we proceeded to look at train times to Chicago. I’m already familiar with the closest commuter train station to the university where Joe and I go to school, and I already had train times written down and memorized. We knew that there were two shows at the jazz club, and I could already tell from the enthusiasm in Joe’s voice over the phone. He didn’t even have to say it. He wanted to go to the earlier one.

We chose a train that would get us into Chicago more than an hour before the first show. We’d arrange our cab (I used Google Maps to look up the distance) and arrive at the Jazz Club a half-hour before the first show started.

Planning all of this took some time, but I’m getting more excited with every day that passes. It’s a long way away, but with the help of some technology and by contacting my friend who’d been there before to ask her questions about the jazz club and cab companies, I feel confident this will work. We may encounter some obstacles, but it’ll be a learning experience.


Do we fear the blind?

With the celebration of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s birthday coming up on Monday, a colleague here at Easterseals national headquarters emailed us all this quote she found on a Friendship Circle Special Needs Blog post titled 10 Disability Awareness Lessons Learned From Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.:

People fail to get along because they fear each other; they fear each other because they don’t know each other; they don’t know each other because they have not communicated with each other.

The quote brought to mind a piece published in The New York Times called Why Do We Fear the Blind?. The article quoted everyone from the 18th century French philosopher Denis Diderot to modern essayist Christopher Hitchens to try to explain why Blindness is the most feared and misunderstood of all disabilities.

Really? It took famous philosophers and scholars to explain this? Let’s be real. People are afraid of blindness because, well, being blind looks scary. And maybe seeing someone like me, who is blind, serves as a reminder: this could happen to you, too.

Odds aren’t great, though. Only 1.3 million people in the United States are legally blind. That’s not many. We human beings tend to be fearful of things we don’t know, though, and with so few of us out here, your chances of getting to know a person who is blind is rare.

The reporter who wrote the New York Times article put on a blindfold to try to understand what it’s like to traverse city streets when you can’t see. I’m afraid all that does is make her readers more afraid. And grateful that they are not blind. But she can go away proud that she was sensitive enough to try walking around with a blindfold in an effort to simulate being blind.

People who are blind can’t take the blindfold off and then talk about how scary it is. We spend miserably difficult months with remarkably dedicated orientation and mobility trainers learning how to do simple things, like walk outside and mail a letter.

Beth with Seeing Eye dog Whitney.

I started losing my eyesight in 1984, when I was 25 years old. Before then, I had a job advising college students who wanted to study overseas. The job entailed talking with students, checking out what programs might work for them, phoning different college departments or other universities to arrange for the transfer of college credits.

I was sure I’d be able to perform these tasks without being able to see. My boss, however, was equally sure I could not.

I tried proving her wrong. At first I didn’t use a white cane or a dog. I quit driving or riding my bike, but I could still see well enough to walk to work with a walking cane (my husband Mike and I happened to have bought one as a souvenir during our honeymoon in Scotland months before, when I could still see perfectly well).

As my eyesight got worse, I started making mistakes in the office. One morning I spilled grounds all over the floor on my way to make the morning coffee. I sat inches away from my computer screen to see the words. I ran into tabletops. At one point my boss took me aside and told me I wouldn’t be going to the annual convention with my colleagues that year. “You’ll embarrass the office,” she said.

Those were scary times.

By the end of that year, I had lost my sight completely. The Americans with Disabilities Act had not been passed yet. My contract was terminated. My confidence was shattered. How could I have been so naive? Did I really think I was worth hiring? Why would anyone employ someone who couldn’t see?

I considered pursuing a Master’s degree in blind rehabilitation then, reasoning that if you work helping blind people, being blind would be an advantage, and I might get a job. After some soul-searching, I realized that with my personality I might be able to do more for the blind community by getting outside of it.

I am not shy, and I hope that demonstrating to people who might not come across a blind person in their daily lives that a person without sight can live a full, creative, and pleasurable life will show them we’re nothing to be afraid of. The way I look at it, ahem, it’s all I can do.


Paid DC internships for students and recent grads with disabilities — apply now!

internshipThe United States International Council on Disabilities (USICD) is accepting applications for paid internships in Washington, DC this summer.

USICD launched its first internship program in 2013 for youth with disabilities who are interested in international development or foreign affairs careers. The program is supported by the Mitsubishi Electric America Foundation, and graduate students, recent graduates and undergraduates in their junior or senior year who have disabilities are encouraged to apply.

Participants go through a one week training course and then work with a major international development agency for eight weeks to learn more about foreign aid and development. Interns also participate in trainings and workshops on career development topics, in addition to attending meetings at the State Department and other agencies during their time in DC.

Interns will receive a limited stipend, reimbursement for travel expenses, and fully-accessible housing. The USICD web site says they anticipate that the summer 2017 interns will need to be in DC from May 28 to July 29, 2017, though these dates may be subject to change.

Applications for the summer 2017 program are due by January 10, 2017, and you can download an application here. For more details about the program, the USICD recommends you consult the “Frequently Asked Questions” section on its web site.


Last-minute toy ideas for kids who have disabilities

GiftChristmas is this Sunday already? Hanukah starts Sunday, too?


If you’re having trouble coming up with an idea for a special gift for a special kid, don’t despair. Once again this year, Toys “R” Us has published its free toy-selection guide for parents and friends of children with disabilities. The Toy Guide for Differently-Abled Kids features items that promote the development of specific skills, such as auditory, language, visual, tactile, fine motor, thinking, self-esteem and social skills.

Toys in this guide are not categorized by disability nor by age. Instead, symbols are assigned to each toy based on different skills — this way gift-givers can choose toys that build or reinforce a variety of skill sets.

Our son Gus is a young adult now and living with three other guys in a group home in Wisconsin. While most of the gifts in the Differently-Abled Toy Guide are not age appropriate, we were still able to find a perfect gift in the catalog for him this year.

Gus misses hearing our voices sometimes, so we got him a recordable Christmas book. The recordable book allows my husband and me to read and record a Christmas poem out loud to him. This way when Gus turns a page, he’ll hear us reading. Now all Mike and I have to do is sit down and make the recording…happy holidays!


Waiter with one eye claims discrimination

That’s a whole lotta eyeballs there looking for a home. (photo by Chuck Gullett.)

Now, here’s a new one for you.

A waiter in Mississippi was fired for refusing to wear his fake eye at work. Discrimination? I dunno. But this story strikes close to home.

Eye surgeons did all they could to restore my vision when retinopathy set in thirty years ago. One of my eyes is still intact, but the other one shrunk so much from the trauma of all those surgeries that I can’t hold that eyelid open. I wear a prosthesis in that eye.

Jared Ellis, a married father of two children, lost an eye five years ago in an accident. He told a reporter at news station WREG in Mississippi that he wore a prosthetic eye for a while, but it was so uncomfortable that it gave him headaches. Eventually he decided not to wear it at all.

I still remember the first time an oclularist (that’s what specialists who make fake eyes are called) spread open the lids to my poor shrunken eye and plopped the prosthesis in. “Okay,” she said. I could hear her wiping her hands on a paper towel. “It’s in.”

Intellectually I knew all along that the prosthesis was not meant to improve my eyesight. It was meant to improve my looks. Subconsciously, though, I must have thought this eyepiece was going to give me sight. It felt so much like the contact lenses I used to wear that for one split-second I expected to open my eyes, look in a mirror and see what I looked like with this new eye. “It looks great!” the ocularist exclaimed with pride. I faked a smile.

The eyepiece felt weird at first, as if, well, as if there was something in my eye. I’ve become used to it now. It only bothers me when dust or grit gets in there. If that happens, I take it out, clean it with regular hand soap and water, and plop it back in. I try not to do this in public restrooms, though!

Last month Ellis told reporters he didn’t wear a prosthetic eye or eye patch when he interviewed for the restaurant job or at any time he worked there. He said there’d been no mention of complaints from customers about him, and that he enjoyed his work.

A month into the job, however, a manager took Ellis aside and told him the restaurant owners wanted him either to wear a prosthetic or an eyepatch. Ellis quit on the spot, claiming discrimination.

As for me, of course it was crazy for me to ever think the fake eye would restore my vision. Not so crazy to think the fake eye would help restore my confidence. My fake eye is pretty realistic. It helps people feel more comfortable talking with me and listening to what I’m saying. With my fake eye in, it can appear I’m looking at people as they talk. They open themselves up, rather than pre-occupy themselves with my blindness. In turn, so do I.

So, what’s your guess? Which one is fake? (photo by Chuck Gullett)

If you can forgive the blind puns here, it’s pretty interesting to look at this from a different point of view. Ellis says he’d like to use his restaurant experience to send a message to others in his shoes. “It’s about everybody who’s ever looked in the mirror or had somebody tell them there’s something wrong with the way they look,” he said in the WREG report. “There’s nothing wrong with you. You are beautiful. Don’t let anyone ever tell you otherwise.”


A Heartfelt Year-End Thanks & Gratitude from Easterseals CEO

Randy Rutta talking to a little girl at an Eatser Seals center

Randy Rutta at an Easter Seals center

We at Eastereals have a lot to be grateful for this year … our Easterseals families, our friends, countless donors and volunteers, our staff, our advocacy and many corporate and community partners. And what better time to pause for a moment, and widely express our thanks, than during this holiday season.

Starting on #GivingTuesday, Easterseals launched its month of gratitude, with many of our clients stepping up to share their stories and literally take over our social media feeds. Take a look. We’re getting a heartfelt response from so many, and I thought I’d join in and offer up my own musings — and gratitude — from life on the inside of this 100-year-young heritage brand.

2016 was a landmark year for Easterseals. We introduced our new brand, along with other exciting changes; we celebrated the achievements of children and adults at our 75 Easterseals across the country, and we forged and fostered incredible partnerships that helped us advance our purpose to change the way the world defines and views disabilities. Here, our team has captured 16 of our top moments, in no particularly order.

I am so proud of each and every success this year, and owe a debt of gratitude to all of our friends who help make those moments, and so many more, a reality. Generous gifts — whether large or small, tried and true, or even groundbreaking in their unique approach to philanthropy – from millions of people each year drive Easterseals to make a profound, positive difference in people’s lives everyday.

I would, however, like to add a 17th moment to that list for good measure, acknowledging a game-changing social investment and effort to usher in a new Easterseals for the 21st century. Just two years from now, Easterseals will celebrate its centennial anniversary. In that lead up, Easterseals is launching a comprehensive strategic planning initiative to set far-reaching goals and a plan to achieve a bold vision for people with disabilities.

I am grateful to our supporters who make these types of efforts possible. In particular, I greatly appreciate the support of the George and Betty Harbaugh Foundation for expanding access to essential services and supports to our nation’s veterans and their families, and in 2016, making a Program-Related Investment loan to significantly strengthen our organization’s capacity to advance innovation, excellence and growth of services for people with disabilities and their families.

Easterseals recently launched a comprehensive, strategic transformation project. The path forward will engage all of Easterseals decision-makers and stakeholders — 33,000 staff, 42,000 volunteers, national/community partners, and 1.5 million people and families served this year alone. Together, with a nationally-recognized expert advisor, we’re crafting a compelling 21st century vision to affect change and positively impact exponentially more people’s lives.

It is partnerships and innovative support, like this, that make all the difference. And for that, I am forever grateful.


Six Ways Teens with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Learning Disabilities Can Help Themselves Succeed

Guest blogger Kelly Hutchins shares more tips for young people with Autism in today’s post, specifically those who find themselves navigating high school.  Read her first post as well.

success graphicSpeaking up for yourself and making your needs known can be terrifying, but it is something you are going to need to do throughout your life. Debbie Muentnich-Hayes is a Special Ed teacher from Joliet, Illinois. She has been working with young people for over 20 years. We sat down together to brainstorm six ways for teens to advocate for themselves.

Know Your Case Manager

Your case manager is the person who helps write your Individualized Education Program (IEP), and his or her job is to advocate for your needs. If you don’t know who your case manager is, go to the special education office to find out. It is important to meet periodically with your case manager so you can communicate to them exactly what you need to succeed academically. Debbie put it best saying: “Don’t try to handle it all by yourself, you don’t have to go it alone. There are many adults in your school who have studied to be able to help you get the most from your education. Special education staff have a passion to make sure you receive the education accommodations you are entitled to by law.”

Know What Accommodations are Available

There are lots of different accommodations that may help you in school. Here are a few accommodations that might be worth exploring further:

  • Seating at the front of the classroom
  • Extended time for assignments and tests
  • Guided notes (usually a handout where the teacher has outlined the lecture, but has left areas blank for the key concepts, facts, and figures for you to fill in) if you have trouble with note-taking
  • Using a computer or tablet to take notes in class
  • Alternate testing locations
  • Having someone read the test questions out loud for you

Attend Your IEP meetings

Your IEP is what documents your accommodations and education plan. Every year you have an IEP meeting that determines what will be written into your IEP. It is important to attend your IEP meetings because they are a key space for self-advocacy. You get to talk face-to-face with all the people who are making decisions that affect your experience in high school. It is not unusual for your case manager, your guidance counselor, your parents, and your school social worker to all attend.  If the school year is already underway, but your accommodations aren’t working, you can ask your case manager for an IEP meeting. If you do not have an IEP, but think you need one, you can ask your guidance counselor about exploring your options.

Know Your Learning Style, and be Honest With Those Trying to Help You

Your learning style is the way in which you learn best. If you aren’t sure about your learning style, you can take a learning style inventory. You can either google it yourself (just search “learning style inventory”) and take a few quizzes, or you can ask your social worker/therapist to help you figure out your specific learning style. You might also understand a lot of your strengths and weaknesses just based on experience.

It is vital for you to be honest with yourself and others about your strengths and weaknesses. It might be embarrassing to admit that you find some things difficult, but it will make your life so much easier. It is crucial that you honestly communicate with teachers, parents, guidance counselors, therapists, social workers and case managers. Not only do these people want to help you, but it is their job to do so.

Develop Successful Strategies for Studying and Homework

There are a lot of ways you can help yourself study outside of school. Your teachers, case manager, and therapist or social worker can help you find what works for you.  Here are some of our favorite ideas:

  • Using audio books if you are an auditory learner
  • Have an accountability partner for study time
  • Set up a good study routine and location
  • Noise cancelling headphones or white noise machine (music is usually too distracting)
  • Make sure to allocate enough time to study, because it will probably take you longer. This is not because you are less intelligent, but because American school systems are designed for students without learning disabilities

Take Care of Your Mental Health

Consider going to therapy or seeing a school social worker. Your case manager or guidance counselor can set you up with a social worker in school. Social workers and therapists are there to help you with all aspects of life, and will be a huge advocate for you in school. Sessions with them are safe spaces to process your feelings. The only time a social worker or therapist will break confidentiality is if you are a threat to yourself or others. In that situation they are required by law to break confidentiality in order to insure your safety.

If you are prescribed medication, take it exactly as directed. For the medication to work properly, you must follow your doctor’s instructions. Side effects in the first couple weeks of starting a new medication are normal, but if they persist or make life unmanageable, talk to your doctor. Do not stop taking any medication before consulting your doctor. Going off medication without medical supervision can be very dangerous. If you have trouble remembering to take your medication, try setting alarms on your phone and purchasing a weekly pill case, which lets you easily see if you missed a dose.


Disability and Dating: How to Find Love While Being True to Yourself

On tonight’s all new episode of ABC’s Speechless, the entire DiMeo family helps JJ romance a girl at school.  Our own Erin Hawley explains that finding the right partner isn’t easy, and it can be especially hard when you have a disability.  Still, that’s no reason to give up! Watch the episode at 8:30|7:30c on ABC. 

By: Erin Hawley

Finding a partner can be difficult for anyone, but for people with disabilities, there are extra barriers in place. Many believe the biggest barriers stem from society’s often-skewed views of our capabilities and what it means to be disabled. The stereotype is one of loneliness; we don’t even have friends, except when an abled person takes us under their wing as a charity case. Many are shocked to learn that people with disabilities have active social lives and romantic relationships, including sexual ones – gasp!

Erin and her boyfriend

Erin and her boyfriend

There are limited resources for people with disabilities when it comes to dating and relationships, including sexual and reproductive health. While all disabilities are unique, we also have a common understanding of what it’s like to navigate the world as a person with a disability. To me, it’s glaringly problematic that supports for us are absent, or buried under paperwork and abandoned websites.

The unfortunate result of this, of people automatically putting you in the “undateable” category because of your bodily difference, is that you may start believing it yourself. If you’re like me, you might begin to internalize the negative expectations that some doctors, teachers, parents, and others project onto you. I’m not going to lie – undoing that internalized ableism and recognizing your own ability to find love is difficult; but for me, that confidence was necessary.

Finding someone who doesn’t instantly write you off is like searching for the Holy Grail. Even on dating sites geared specifically toward people with disabilities, that baggage from always being told we were less than our abled peers clouds our relationships with each other. That baggage is so heavy that it even follows you long after you enter a relationship.

But I took charge of my love life. I recognized those negative thoughts that told me no one would find me desirable; I let them pass through me, and pressed on steadfastly. I made dating profiles, I chatted with tons of guys – many who fell off the face of the earth when they realized how disabled I was. I wasn’t a model who just happened to sit down a lot. I need specific medical care, help with bathroom stuff, assistance dressing, eating, and keeping my airway open. I sit sideways from scoliosis and have frequent back pain. My limbs are contracted, so I have limited range of motion.

People found me physically attractive all the time (because I am gorgeous and photograph damn well), but they didn’t want to “deal” with the other stuff. I could write a book about all the creepy, negative e-mails I’ve received while dating – everything from first messages of “hi, can you have sex?” or “will you let me take care of you?” to “Sorry, I’m not interested. You should go on a dating site for your kind.” If you are disabled and just venturing into the online dating world, expect this – a lot. Or expect a low response rate; honestly, I prefer that to the skeevy messages.

Cookies with "Love" spelled out in icingAt this point, you may be wondering how I found my boyfriend, since I’ve painted online dating as a barren hellscape. The truth is, he found me when I wasn’t looking. After two failed, long-term relationships and a slew of terrible dates following, I was ready for a break. I needed to find my inner peace I knew was there, that I owned. I hate that my relationships held such power over me, emotionally; so I made an effort to stop searching and focus on my mental health. “No one will love you if you don’t love yourself” always seemed like a cheesy, dismissive quote, but it wasn’t until I lost myself that I realized how true it is.

One lazy afternoon, a guy from a dating site sent me a message after recognizing me in a Twitter chat about tabletop gaming. Two weeks go by, and we have our first date. Fast-forward almost two years later, and here we are in a healthy relationship based on mutual respect, honesty, support, and understanding. My disability is an integral part of my identity, and he accepts and loves that about me, as I accept and love him.

Dating is treacherous. It makes you feel vulnerable, and constantly tests your inner strength. You will get your heart broken in ways you never thought possible (or you could be the luckiest person ever – in which case, rock on). Remember to love yourself first, because that love is something they can’t take away from you. And if you ever feel like no one would want to date you because of your disabilities, silence that beast – it’s lying.


Thankful for us, the U.S.

Ben Trockman

Ben Trockman

During this time of great constitutional debate and discussion within our country, I’m reminded of my gratitude for the First Amendment of the United States Constitution. It reads:

“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.”

Unlike people in many other countries in the world, citizens of the United States are granted the freedom to exercise free speech. Why is this particularly important to me, specifically in regard to disability inclusion? Let’s think back 100 years ago. My grandmother tells me the story of my great-grandfather Jimmy, who had polio and attended high school in the 1910s. Prior to Jimmy’s graduation, the principal of the school told my great-grandfather and his parents that they should “find their son a job in a back room where no one could see him.” This was the reality people with disabilities were facing in the early 20th century; a principal encouraging parents to “hide” their child from the world.

Now lets fast forward to the “Crawl on Capitol Hill,” prior to the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990. Hundreds of passionate disability advocates peacefully protested by abandoning their wheelchairs and walkers, and pulling their “disabled” bodies up the steps on Capitol Hill.

This vivid act of “free speech and/or peaceful assembly” led to unprecedented awareness of disability issues. The peaceful protest transformed the thinking of our country — and the leaders of our country — regarding people with disabilities. The ADA was signed months later in 1990 and has been a landmark piece of legislation for the disability community ever since.

Disable demonstrators crawl the Capitol steps. Photo: Action for Access, Tom Olin

Demonstrators with disabilities crawl the Capitol steps. Photo: Action for Access, Tom Olin

The purpose of this blog post is not to concentrate on one specific incident, but to look back, reflect and appreciate the rights that we have as United States citizens to express our passions, thoughts, ideas and concerns whether we express them by speaking, blogging, tweeting, publishing YouTube videos, or Facebook.

Without the ability to speak, assemble, protest and advocate, we may not have made it to a time where I (a 28-year-old quadriplegic) could have a full-time position at Old National Bank, one of the greatest employers in the tri-state, constantly speaking in the community, and feeling as though my opinions are always important. Without the First Amendment, I may not have had the opportunity to be employed. I may not have had the opportunity to advocate. I may not have had the opportunity to graduate.

Who knows?

One thing I do know is that we live in the greatest country in the world, where we have the opportunity to, in the words of James Dean, “dream as if you’ll live forever, live as if you’ll die today.”

For that, I am grateful.